In the Indian subcontinent, early child death was very high. We have heard our grandmothers use to give birth 11 to 13 (sometimes 18) kids in their life. Now we may get shaken, but this was very natural scenario of this continent. Because they get married in early age (mostly in childhood) and then started giving birth of kids. But finally they had 4 to 5 (sometimes 8) kids alive. Rest of them became dead in their childhood. There are many reasons behind it. First, mom didn't have time and energy to take care of the kid, lack of nutrition, lack of knowledge (how to raise them properly), no health care etc.
Then our mom’s generation came. In this generation we see, moms use to take 4/5 kids in their life. Reason was, they got married after 18, they are educated enough to raise their kid. Though, they also faced problem to raise kids because of time and energy. Some of them were also working woman. And if we ask them we will see they also had lost 1 or 2 kids. Main reason they faced, is less availability of vaccines and work pressure.
Now if we see our generation, many moms from towns take only 1 or 2 baby. Because moms now work outside, the living cost is very high to raise more kids and moms want to take care of the baby most, so they don’t want to take more kids that she might not be able to give more attention to them. The child death rate is very low in towns. Because mostly the awareness in the moms. They are now literate, so they know when she had to take her kid for vaccine, can give proper food for nutrition, she give most attention to her kid than any other work.
In rural area still child death rate is still high. The main reasons are illiteracy of moms (so she don’t or couldn't take the right decision for her and kids, like proper food, vaccines etc), vaccines not available in nearby place (in some area), moms don’t take her kid to the doctor in right time (reasons: lack of knowledge, doctors not available in nearby place, family don’t support her etc), mom don’t have time (she is busy to take care of her in laws first) take proper care etc, don’t have facility to give proper delivery of the child.
To solve this problem, we need to aware all. Like the husbands, moms, elders etc. That they should take good care of mom and the child, they have to take them to the doctor in proper time. They have to give vaccine; they have to provide good and proper food for mom and kid etc. We have to start taking care of a child before it gets birth.